Author Archives: Jürgen

Remembering Enid Robertson

The Governor of South Australia, Sir Robert George, unveils the National Trust plaque on Watiparinga Reserve, watched by the donor of the property Miss Alison Ashby. Photo: The Advertiser, 21 May 1959, SLSA +70984/76.

The well known botanist and conservationist Enid Robertson passed away last year.  To commemorate her life and her dedication to the restoration and care of Watiparinga Reserve a new plaque will be unveiled this month, commemorating Enid and her aunt Alison Ashby.

The land, once part of the Ashby family’s Wittunga farm, was gifted to the National Trust by Alison Ashby in 1957. Watiparinga’s greybox grassy woodland provides an essential haven for rare and threatened plants and animals. Elsewhere, this habitat has largely been built over with housing and roads. A detailed booklet on this ecological community has been published by the Federal environment department (14.2mb PDF) a few years ago.

If you want to know more about Enid Robertson and her work, have a look at the transcript of an interview (1.2mb PDF) with her from the State Library of South Australia‘s oral history collection. Another family connection: her father Keith Ashby donated part of the family property to the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium in 1965, which later became Wittunga Botanic Gardens.

Fungus of the month

The State Herbarium of South Australia‘s Fungus of the Month for May 2017 is Chlorociboria aeruginascens, a species of small disc fungi that is widespread but particularly spectacular in DEWNR’s Park of the Month, Flinders Chase National Park.

Chlorociboria aeruginascens on wood. Photo: D.E.A. Catcheside.

Chlorociboria aeruginascens (Nyl.) Kanouse ex C.S.Ramamurthi, Korf & L.R.Batra has a number of common names including ‘blue-green wood cup’, ‘green elf-cup’ and ‘blue or green stain fungus’. It is a common and widespread fungus, growing in groups on debarked wood or fallen branches, causing the wood to be stained a brilliant blue-green colour. The similarly coloured cup-like fruit bodies are found in very moist conditions in the wetter winter months.

The generic name is derived from the Greek kloros (χλωρός), meaning green, and Latin ciborium, a drinking cup. The specific epithet comes from aerugo, Latin for verdigris, a deep bluish-green encrustation formed on copper or brass, and the suffix ascens, becoming.

The fruit bodies, apothecia, are tiny, stalked cups to 5 mm high, of an intense turquoise colour. The apothecia have a diameter of 4–10 mm and initially are a shallow cup-shape but flatten to a disc with a slightly raised margin. The blue-green upper surface is smooth to wrinkled with a small dimple; the outer surface is smooth and slightly paler with a white bloom. The tiny stem tapers down and is often off-centre; it is the same colour or slightly darker than the cup and black at the base. The stem bases of the fruit bodies are attached to a black mat of hyphae embedded in the wood.

Chlorociboria aeruginascens. Photo: D.E.A. Catcheside.

Chlorociboria aeruginascens is a cosmopolitan, saprotrophic species. In the northern hemisphere it grows mostly on hardwoods, such as poplar, Populus spp., oak, Quercus spp. and ash, Fraxinus spp.; in the southern hemisphere it is on Eucalyptus spp. and Nothofagus spp., although it does grow on other woods. The wood on which it grows is usually soft, giving the appearance that it has been infected by white-rot fungi but C. aeruginascens is not considered a true wood-rot fungus. The blue-green pigment, a quinone derivative called xylindein, is secreted by the microscopic tubular threads, the hyphae, of the fungus. It has been suggested that the pigment may make the wood less enticing for termites and may also reduce competition with other wood-inhabiting fungi.

The green-stained wood was highly prized. It was used in inlaid decorative woodwork such as Tunbridge ware, marquetry, intarsia panels and parquetry. Tunbridge ware was made in Tonbridge and Tunbridge Wells in Kent, England, from the mid-18th century. Small pieces of different coloured woods, including the blue-green wood stained by Chlorociboria aeruginascens, were used to make pictures and patterns and inlaid into small boxes, fire screens and tables. Marquetry involves the glueing of small pieces of coloured wood on to thin veneers for use in furniture-making. Parquetry is a similar technique used mainly for floors. In the older process of intarsia, a solid piece of one material is cut out from a surface such as a table-top or floor and patterns made up of wood, marble, ivory and/or mother-of-pearl are inserted into the excised area (see also this article).

Collection of Chlorociboria aeruginascens (P.S. Catcheside 4378) in the lab before drying. With centimetre scale. Photo: D.E.A. Catcheside.

Chlorociboria aeruginascens is in the family Chlorociboriaceae Baral & P.R.Johnst., order Helotiales Nannf. ex Korf & Lizoň. Seventeen species of Chlorociboria are recognized worldwide, fifteen occur in New Zealand. They may be separated on the basis of spore size and shape, hyphae on the outer surface of the apothecia and on macroscopic differences such as colour of fruit body, some species having a yellow or white disc while some dry orange-brown, others blue-green. Johnston & Park (2005) have described a subspecies from New Zealand, Chlorociboria aeruginascens subsp. australis P.R. Johnst., which is morphologically indistinguishable from a subspecies found in the northern hemisphere, Chlorociboria aeruginascens subsp. aeruginascens. They may be separated only by molecular analysis, an impractical procedure in the field! No molecular work has been done on the specimens illustrated here, but it is probable that they are of Chlorociboria aeruginascens subsp. australis. Only two species from Australia are listed in the ALA, C. aeruginascens and C. aeruginosa (Oeder) Seaver. Both species look very similar, but C. aeruginosa has longer spores and larger terminal cells on the outer surface. An earlier name, Chlorosplenium aeruginascens (Nyl.) P. Karst., still occurs in a number of field guides. (See also Fungi in Australia, Part 2 and references therein; 40.2mb PDF).

Contributed by Hon. Research Associate Pam Catcheside.

World Book Day

World Book Day or World Books and Copyright Day is celebrated on 23 April every year and organised by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and copyright. The 23rd of April was chosen, as the authors Cervantes, de la Vega and Shakespeare all died on this date. The day was first celebrated by the booksellers in Catalonia, Spain, in 1923. Since 1995 it is celebrated world-wide.

World Book Day is not well-known in Australia. Book Week, organised by the Children’s Book Council since 1945, is more popular and celebrated around the country in August each year.

The Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium has issued a number of publications. A full list of reference and identification books on plants, algae and fungi can be found here, many of these publications are still available for purchase. The Board also holds copyright of all botanical texts issued by the Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee between 1922 and 1997 (see Zeidler 2002). Out-of-print publications have been scanned and are available for download on Enviro Data SA (click on the “All Reports” tab), for example Acacias of South Australia (64.3mb PDF), Orchids of South Australia (29.9mb PDF), or the six volumes of Womersley’s Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia (also available as species fact sheets).

In addition, the State Herbarium of South Australia also publishes the new, 5th edition of the Flora of South Australia online in PDF format. The previous edition from 1986 is long in need of revision, as there are now over 1000 more plants known for the State. (Flora PDF files are also available here.)

The last volume of the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens was received from the printer this week and is now being sent to our partner institutions and libraries. All articles in Vol. 29 (2015/16) are also available online, free of charge, on the journal’s web-page ( From this year, the journal changes its name to Swainsona, but continues the volume numbering. Vol. 30 of the renamed journal will contain the Proceedings of the Botany Symposium at the 2016 NRM Science Conference. Regular papers will be published in Vol. 31 (2017).

More information by the UN, UNESCO and Wikipedia on World Book Day. An order form for books published by the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium is available here (270kb PDF). Orders can be placed by phone (08 8222 9311) or fax (08 8222 9399), or you email a scanned copy of this form to us (

Five additional weed species prohibited from sale throughout South Australia

The Minister for Sustainability, Environment and Conservation has declared five additional introduced weed species under the Natural Resources Management Act 2004 (NRM Act). This prohibits these species from sale throughout South Australia.

Introduced species are declared under the NRM Act if they pose a threat to primary industries, natural environments or public safety. The new additions were included as part of a review of the NRM Act, conducted by Biosecurity SA in conjunction with the eight Natural Resources Management boards. Other stakeholders in SA were also consulted including the State Herbarium of South Australia. The review of the NRM Act is to maintain the relevance of polices and declarations, and the final changes were officially gazetted in the South Australian Government Gazette 7: 368-382 on 9 February 2017 (2.5mb PDF). This now completes the review of the declared plant schedules and polices, a procedure that was begun in 2010.

The five additional introduced weedy plant species that have been added to the Declared Plant List, now prohibited from sale throughout South Australia to prevent further spread, are:

Alisma lanceolatum With. (alisma) is an emergent perennial water weed with large broad leaves and herbaceous flowering stems that is produced from a short underwater rhizome. It is found at a few localities in the Southern Lofty region of South Australia. However, caution should be exercised if controlling suspected infestations, as A. lanceolatum closely resembles another widespread and similar looking native species, Alisma plantago-aquatica. Detailed descriptions of the two species and identification keys can be found in a paper by John Conran (900kb PDF).

Alisma lanceolatum, habit (left) and close-up of flower (right). From J.G. Conran, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 25: 14 (2012), Fig. 1D, F.

Arundo donax L. (giant reed) is a large perennial cane grass of stream edges and wetlands, native to Eurasia and naturalised locally in South Australia. Giant reed is highly sterile and clumps spread slowly by underground rhizomes producing successive stems and forming a dense monoculture. Clumps can be spread to new areas when stems or rhizomes are moved in soil or garden waste to other suitable locations.

Arundo donax infestation in the Adelaide Hills. Photo: Biosecurity SA.

Leptospermum laevigatum (Gaertn.) F.Muell. (coastal tea-tree) is a shrub or small tree adapted to coastal habitats, introduced to South Australia from eastern Australia. In areas where coastal tea-tree has invaded, it has been observed to have a competitive impact on other native shrubs. Coastal tea-tree was widely planted during the twentieth century and is now naturalised in South Australia and is often assumed to be native with local residents not realising it is a weed. A related native species is L. lanigerum.

Leptospermum laevigatum. Photo: M.Fagg, Australian Plant Image Index (ANBG).

Myriophyllum aquaticam (Vell.) Verdc. (parrot feather) is a submerged aquatic plant growing from a rhizome in shallow fresh water. It has been introduced to South Australia as an aquarium plant. Parrot feather is found growing in shallow waters on muddy substrates. It interferes with the flow of water in streams, recreational freshwater fishing and other recreation. Stems may float out over water surfaces to form dense tangled rafts of plant material, from which the emergent shoots arise to give an impenetrable mat that competes with native aquatic plants for habitat.

Myriophyllum aquaticum, view of plant from side (left) and from top (right). Photos: André Karwath from Wikimedia CC-BY-SA.

Trachyandra divaricata (Jacq.) Kunth (dune onion weed) is a sandbinding perennial of coastal dunes, introduced to South Australia from southern Africa. Dune onion weed is perennial and reproduces by seed. Seed can be spread when dry plants break off and are rolled along beaches by the wind. Dune onion weed can be toxic to livestock, causing photosensitisation. This has occurred in Western Australia on coastal dunes that were used for pasturing cattle.

Trachyandra divaricata on the beach. Photo: AMLR/DEWNR.

Distribution maps for the species, based on State Herbarium records, can be found through the eFloraSA web-site (use the Census search function) or Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. Some of these plants have been in the horticultural trade as garden or aquarium plants.

A poster with a full list with images and descriptions of all recent new plant declarations in South Australia is available here (3mb PDF).

To ensure correct management of weeds a positive reliable identification is required. The State Herbarium of South Australia’s Weeds Botanist Chris Brodie can offer identifications of these or any other suspected weeds to confirm their identity. This ensures that the correct taxa are targeted for control measures.

Please contact Chris Brodie by email or phone (08 8222 9468) for further information on the identification of weeds.

Contributed by Chris Brodie, Weeds Botanist, State Herbarium.

Phycologist visiting the Herbarium

The State Herbarium of South Australia has the largest and most varied collection of specimens of the algae tribe Polysiphonieae in all of Australia, largely due to the detailed work of H.B.S. Womersley and his encyclopaedic work The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia (1984–2003).

Tolypiocladia glomerulata, a widespread species, also found in Australia (WA, NT, Qld). Photo: Moorea Biocode, French Polynesia (EOL), CC-BY-NC-SA.

This week, Dr Yola Metti from the Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney is visiting the State Herbarium to study the valuable specimens housed here. Specifically, Dr Metti will look at the morphological differences within and between the genera of the tribe Polysiphonieae, as well as detailed distributions of each species.

In 2016, Yola received a 3-year postdoctoral grant from the Australian Biological Resources Study (ABRS). She and her collaborators, from S Korea, USA, PERTH, MELU and NSW, will be working on the systematics of the tribe Polysiphonieae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) of Australia in both marine and non-marine environments.  This project will determine species and genus-level taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Polysiphonieae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) within Australia, including both marine and nonmarine taxa.  It will result in the first detailed, taxonomic study of an extremely diverse and difficult group in Australia.

The tribe Polysiphonieae is a cosmopolitan red algae and contains 15 genera and over 300 species; 11 genera encompassing 81 species are recorded for Australia, though there would appear to be several dozen undescribed taxa. The tribe in Australia has many problematic species, and there is a great deal of uncertainty in the application of names and distribution of taxa. Morphological characters are conflicting and highly variable, making identifications through molecular markers critical. Worldwide studies indicate that the larger genera are polyphyletic, prompting revision of the group outside Australia and resulting in new genera. The group has poorly defined genera and many of the Australian endemic genera are not represented in published analyses.

Echinothamnion hystrix. found in Australia (WA, SA, Vic., Tas.) and New Zealand. Photo: J. Huisman, Esperance, Western Australia (Algaebase).

In addition to the taxonomic issues mentioned above, the relationships between marine and non-marine taxa are uncertain: we don’t even know if they are the same species? Polysiphonieae are an important component of waterways and are used as eutrophication indicators. They are fouling organisms that can become invasive and damaging to the environment, fisheries and tourism. In Australia, the group is rarely targeted for taxonomic study, but is often collected by workers surveying aquatic habitats.

No global study of the tribe has been completed, though large amounts of data are available. Bringing together this data is required to understand the taxonomy of the group. This Australian-wide study, that will incorporate the high diversity found here along with the world-wide available data, will be key to the understanding of the tribe.

Yola Metti during field work. Photo: Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney (Instagram).

Contributed by Yola Metti, Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney