Author Archives: Jürgen

New journal articles: July 2022

The State Herbarium of South Australia published three articles in Vol. 36 of its journal Swainsona today, 22 July 2022.

(1) T.A. Hammer, Inadvertent lectotypifications of Australian Dillenia and Tetracera (Dilleniaceae) (100kb PDF).

In this Short Communication, Tim Hammer (State Herbarium of South Australia & The University of Adelaide) clarifies the types for two species of Dilleniaceae: Dillenia alata (R.Br. ex DC.) Banks ex Martelli and Tetracera daemeliana F.Muell. In both cases, a lectotype was chosen inadvernetly by R.D. Hoogland, i.e. he did not explicitely designated the type specimens in his publications as lectotypes, but according to Art 9.10 of the International code of nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) his listing of a “type” specimen is interpreted as lectotypification.

Tye specimen of the new species Quintinia macrophylla.

(2) O.K. Paul & J. Kellermann, A new species of Quintinia (Paracryphiaceae) and an overview of the genus for New Guinea (3.2mb PDF).

Botanist Oliver Paul from the Papua New Guinea National Herbarium and State Herbarium of South Australia staff member Jürgen Kellermann publish an overview of the enigmatic tropical genus Quintinia for New Guinea, lectotypify several names and also describe a new species, Q. macrophylla. Over the years, the genus has been assigned to several different plants families: Saxifragaceae, Escalloniaceae, Grossulariaceae or to its own family Quintiniaceae. Molecular data now place it into Paracryphiaceae. Quintinia species are small to medium-sized shrubs or trees, growing from lowland rainforests to high montane moss forests. A world-checklist of Quintinia is also appended to the paper: The genus is most species-rich in New Guinea (13 spp.), but is also distributed in New Caledonia & Vanuatu (6 spp.; see Pillon & Hequet 2019), Australia (4 spp.), New Zealand (1 sp.) and Mindanao (Philippines) & Sulawesi (Indonesia) (1 sp.).

(3) T.A. Hammer, Two new cremnophilous Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) species from the Northern Territory (2.2mb PDF).

The author describes to species of Hibbertia, which are mainly occurring in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory. Both species have been known as phrase name taxa for several years: The new species Hibbertia pendula was known as Hibbertia sp. South Magela and H. scopulicola was known as Hibbertia sp. Mount Howship. Both taxa grow in sandstone gorges, hanging from fissures in cliff faces.

The new species Hibbertia scopulicola growing on a cliff face in a gorge in the Wellington Range. Photo: D.E. Murfet.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at flora.sa.gov.au/swainsona or the Swainsona back-up site.

Lepiota brunneoincarnata – another exotic toxic mushroom in South Australia

Lepiota brunneoincarnata. Collection of the mushroom involved in a dog poisoning case. Scale divisions: 1 mm. Photo: P.S. Catcheside.

For some time, Lepiota brunneoincarnata is known to occur in South Australia and a similar species, Lepiota cristataoccurs in parts of New Zealand. The State Herbarium of South Australia has now published a new fact-sheet on this poisonous fungus (500kb PDF).

At the State Herbarium of South Australia, we have collections of Lepiota from at least 6 poisoning cases, some human and some dogs, over the last 5-8 years. While microscopy was done at the time of each case, the condition of samples when we receive them can be problematic. In the last few months we have extracted DNA and confirmed the identity of 3 of the past cases as L. brunneoincarnata, based on analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA region data. The next step is to complete tests for amatoxin concentration, to determine how much is a deadly dose.

Lepiota brunneoincarnata. Fungus involved in a human poisoning case, showing the typical white gills, purplish-brown fibrils on the cap, and the skirt on the stem with a purplish-brown rim and purplish-brown fibrils in patches below the skirt. Photo: T. Lebel.

Amatoxin poisoning upon ingestion of species of Lepiota may have a deadly outcome, but is not seen as often as it is from the genus Amanita. Amatoxins inhibit nuclear RNA polymerase II, and this inhibition results in impaired protein synthesis and cell death. Because the liver is an organ in which protein synthesis and cell turnover are high, it suffers the most distinct damage in amatoxin poisoning. The damage appears to be directly proportional to the dose of toxin ingested (i.e. more eaten, more damage). Amatoxins are contained in some Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota species. In Australia and New Zealand, Amanita phalloides (death cap) is known to have a high concentration of amatoxins, and to have been the cause of over 10 deaths in the last 15 years (a far lower rate than occurs in many overseas countries). Some Lepiota species (L. brunneoincarnata, L. brunneolilacina, L. helveola, L, josserandii, L. spiculata, L. venenata) are also known to be very toxic.

These exotic fungi are found in urban areas, mulched gardens or lawns. Don’t make the mistake that just because you have put mushroom compost in your garden beds, that edible Agaricus field mushrooms are the only ones that will grow!

State Herbarium fact-sheets are also available on the poisonous fungi Amanita phalloides (death cap) (700kb PDF) and Agaricus xanthodermus (yellow stainer) (650kb PDF).

Some fungi that have been confused with Lepiota brunneoincarnata in the past: Chlorophyllum brunneum (left), Leucoagaricus leucothites (middle) and Agaricus sp. (right). Photos: T. Lebel & K. Syme.

Written by State Herbarium mycologist Teresa Lebel
and Hon. Research Associate Pam Catcheside.

New journal articles: May 2022

Today, 20 May 2022, the State Herbarium of South Australia published four research papers in Vol. 36 of its journal Swainsona online.

Seed pods (fruits) of the new species Swainsona picta (W.A.). Photo: J. Hruban & M. Hrubanová.

(1) R.W. Davis & T.A. Hammer, Swainsona picta (Fabaceae), a new species from the Yalgoo bioregion, Western Australia (0.7 mb PDF).

The authors describe a new species of Swainsona with a particularly striking fruit. It only occurs near and on the Karara mining tenancy in the Yalgoo bioregion of Western Australia and is most closely related to S. oroboides.

(2) J. Kellermann, C. Clowes & S.J.A. Bell, A review of the Spyridium eriocephalum complex (Rhamnaceae: Pomaderreae) (7.5 mb PDF).

This and the next two papers present some of the taxonomic consequences of the recently published first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus Spyridium by Melbourne University PhD student Cat Clowes and collaborators (Clowes et al., Australian Systematic Botany 35: 95-119, 2022).

The authors revise the well-known widespread Spyridium eriocephalum and related species. The Kangaroo Island endemic var. glabrisepalum is raised to specific rank, and two new species are published: Spyridium latifolium from the Fleurieu Peninsula (S.A.) and S. undulifolium from the Goulburn River area (N.S.W.). Another taxon from New South Wales is given a phrase name, as it is only known by 3 specimens and has not been collected for 40 years: Spyridium sp. Dingo Creek (T. Tame 1011).

Spyridium eriocephalum, growing near the type location in Hobart (Tas.). Photo: M. Wapstra.

(3) J. Kellermann, C. Clowes & W.R. Barker, Spyridium bracteatum, a new species from Kangaroo Island allied to S. thymifolium (Rhamnaceae: Pomaderreae) (2.9 mb PDF).

The authors publish a new species from Kangaroo Island, known for over 30 years, but as yet unnamed. It has in the past been confused with S. thymifolium (which is also described and illustrated in the paper) and other species.

Inflorescence of Spyridium thymifolium from Fleurieu Peninsula (S.A.). Photo: J. Kellermann.

(4) J. Kellermann & C. Clowes, Spyridium longicor, a new species from Western Australia (Rhamnaceae: Pomaderreae) (2.7 mb PDF).

A new Western Australian species is described that was so far, known under the phrase name Spyridium sp. Jerdacuttup. It occurs from near Gairdner and Jerramungup townships, in Fitzgerald River National Park and eastwards to Bandalup Hill, Cheadanup Nature Reserve, Wittenoom Hills and with easternmost populations near Condingup.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at flora.sa.gov.au/swainsona or the Swainsona back-up site.

New reseach papers: Apr. 2022

Hemistemma aubertii, the type of Hibbertia subg. Hemistemma. Illustration in Du Petit Thouars, Histoire des végétaux recueillis dans les isles australes d’Afrique.

Tim Hammer is currently undertaking a post-doc at the State Herbarium of South Australia and The University of Adelaide, working on the genus Hibbertia for the Flora of Australia, He is collaborating with Hon. Research Associate Hellmut Toelken, a world-expert on the genus.

Today, 5 Apr. 2022, two research papers by Tim and co-authors were published online…

(1) J. Kellermann, T.A. Hammer & H.R. Toelken, Uncovering the correct publication date, spelling and attribution for the basionym of Hibbertia subg. Hemistemma (Dilleniaceae). Taxon 71.

The authors resolve a complex nomenclatural issue, namely the spelling, author ship and correct publication date of Hemistemma, the basionym of Hibbertia subg. Hemistemma, which contains many well-known species from eastern Australia. It was published in the journal of the International Association of Plant TaxonomistsTaxon.

(2) T.A. Hammer & K.R. Thiele, Hibbertia archeri (Dilleniaceae), a new and rare species from Western Australia with transcontinental affinities. Swainsona 36: 67-70 (1.6mb PDF).

A new species of Hibbertia from north-east of Esperance is published today in Vol. 36 the State Herbarium’s journal Swainsona online. It is only known from two populations, c. 40 km apart. It is most closely related to species of the Hibbertia stricta species group from eastern Australia, e.g. H. deviatataH. setivera and H. riparia.

Hibbertia archeri, the new species from Western Australia. Photo: E.D. Adams.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at flora.sa.gov.au/swainsona or the Swainsona back-up site.

New journal articles: Mar. 2022

The State Herbarium of South Australia published the first three articles in this year’s volume (Vol. 36) of its journal Swainsona online, today, 25 Mar. 2022. All papers deal with fungi and lichens.

Neophyllis melacarpa from Tasmania. Photo: J. Jarman.

(1) G. Kantvilas, The trouble with Neophyllis pachyphylla (lichenised Ascomycetes). (4.2mb PDF).

The author resolves the confusion about the two species of the lichen genus Neophyllis, which consists of one widespread species N. melacarpa, mainly occuring on wood (N.S.W., Victoria, Tasmania and New Zealand), and the rarely seen N. pachyphylla, which grows directly on rock and rocky soils (N.S.W., Victoria, Tasmania).

Lactarius deliciosus. Photos: J. Cooper et al.

(2) J.A. Cooper, J. Nuytink & T. Lebel, Confirming the presence of some introduced Russulaceae species in Australia and New Zealand. (8.6mb PDF)

This study gives an overview of introduced fungi of the genera Russula and Lactarius in Australia andf New Zealand. These often occur in the soil near introduced tree species, but some are now also associated with native trees. Seven Lactarius and six Russula species are described and illustrated in detail. Molecular data confirmed the identifications of the taxa.

(3) T. Lebel, N. Davoodian, M.C. Bloomfield, K. Syme, T.W. May, K. Hosaka & M.A. Castellano, A mixed bag of sequestrate fungi from five different families: Boletaceae, Russulaceae, Psathyrellaceae, Strophariaceae, and Hysterangiaceae. (14mb PDF).

Truffles and truffle-like (sequestrate) fungi occur in many different groups of fungi. In this international collaboration, the authors describe two new genera (Amylotrama and Statesia), seven new species, and make four new combinations for truffles from five different families, occurring in Australia, New Caledonia and Europe

Coprinopsis pulchricaerulea, a new species of truffle-like fungus from New South Wales and New Caledonia. Photos: S. Axford.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at flora.sa.gov.au/swainsona or the Swainsona back-up site.