Research news: fungi papers published

During the last week, two papers were published by State Herbarium of South Australia‘s mycologist, Dr Teresa Lebel, and co-authors in the online version of the journal Mycologia:

Agaricus xanthodermus, p = pileus; s = stipe; a = annulus. Photo: A.-G. Boxshall.

(1) A.-G. Boxshall, J.L. Birch, T. Lebel, M.R.E. Symonds & D.L. Callahan (2021). A field-based investigation of simple phenol variation in Australian Agaricus xanthodermus. Mycologia (Publisher’s website).

Agaricus xanthodermus (yellow stainer) and other species of the yellow-staining Agaricus sect. Xanthodermatei are responsible for mushroom-related poisoning cases that require treatment. However, longstanding anecdotal evidence indicates that this species appears to exhibit considerable variation in toxicity, resulting in gastrointestinal irritation of varying severity in most cases. During her MSc research, the first author quantified the amount of phenol, hydroquinone and catechol in mushrooms and investigated their levels in different fungal structures, different developmental stages and on different nutritional substrates.

(2) J.I. de la Fuente, J.P. Pinzón, L. Guzmán-Dávalos, M.O. Uitzil-Colli, D. Gohar, T. Lebel, M. Bahram & J. García-Jiménez (2021). Revision of the genus Restingomyces, including two new species from Mexico. Mycologia (Publisher’s website).

The paper is the result of a long-standing collaboration to document the truffle diversity in American tropical regions. After a series of field surveys in southeastern Mexico, two new species in the phalloid genus Restingomyces (Trappeaceae, Phallales) were discovered. The authors describe them based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data. Restingomyces guzmanianus and R. yaaxtax occur in medium-statured tropical dry forests. The original diagnosis of the genus Restingomyces is emended to include these novel species.

The new South American truffle Restingomyces guzmanianus, A = truffle cut in half, B = outside. Photo: J.I. de la Fuente et al.

New journal article: August 2021 (2)

The State Herbarium of South Australia published one short communication in Vol. 35 of its journal Swainsona online, today, 18 Aug. 2021.

xPhelodia tutelata. Illustration by F.J. Bradley, first published in Rogers (1906).

J. Kellermann & A. Monro, ×Phelodia, a new nothogenus in Australia Orchidaceae. (0.1mb PDF)

The recently published ×Glossadenia tutelata is a hybrid between the well-known orchids Glossodia major and Caladenia deformis. However, the latter species has now been transferred to another genus, Pheladenia. As the International Code of Nomenclature (ICN) prescribes that the names of hybrid genera consist of parts of the names of the parent genera, the hybrid genus ×Glossadenia needs to change its name, when the Caladenia deformis is accepted as Pheladenia deformis. The authors publish the new hybrid genus xPhelodia and the hybrid species xPhelodia tutelata to satisfy the requirements of the ICN.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at or the Swainsona back-up site.

New journal articles: August 2021 (1)

The State Herbarium of South Australia published three articles in Vol. 35 of its journal Swainsona online, today, 16 August 2021.

(1) S. Dema, I.R.H. Telford, R.L. Andrew, D.J. Duval & J.J. Bruhl, Phebalium calcicola (Rutaceae: Boronieae): a species described as new, restricted to south-eastern South Australia, is proposed as Critically Endangered. (7.7mb PDF).

The authors describe a new species of Phebalium, which is only known from a small population near Mount Gambier. The species is described and illustrated in detail, and compared with its closest relatives. It grows on shallow soil over limestone, hence the name is derived from the Latin calx (limestone) and cola (dweller).

Phebalium calcicola, a new species for South Australia. Photo: D.J. Duval.

(2) T.A. Hammer & R.W. Davis, Ptilotus crinitus (Amaranthaceae), a new species from Western Australia’s Kimberley region. (1.1mb PDF).

Ptilotus crinitus, part of the type specimen. Photo: PERTH.

This new species from northern Western Australia is only known from one collection in a remote coastal area in the northern Kimberley. This study evaluates the morphology of this specimen and concludes that it warrants recognition at species rank. Its closest relatives are Phebalium distans and P. capensis.

(3) R.W.Davis, J. Palmer & T.A. Hammer, Gomphrena axillaris and G. longistyla (Amaranthaceae), new species of Gomphrena from central and northern Australia. (1.7mb PDF).

Gomphrena is one of the largest genera in Amaranthaceae. In this paper, several phrase names and manuscript names from northern and central Australia (WA, NT & Qld) are evaluated. As a result, two new species are described.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at or the Swainsona back-up site.

New 2020-21 weeds report published

Herbarium specimen of Euphorbia davidii, collected west of Caltowie from a localised but substantial population that was spreading into paddocks from the roadside. Photo: C.J. Brodie.

The State Herbarium of South Australia documents all known plant taxa (species, sub-species, varieties and forms) native and naturalised (weedy) in South Australia. These are listed in the Census of South Australian Plants, Algae and Fungi. All newly discovered State and regional records are added to the Census throughout the year. These records are based on preserved plant specimens, verified by a botanists and housed in the vaults of the State Herbarium.

For all new records of non-native plants, an annual report is produced by Weeds Botanist Chris Brodie and colleagues from the State Herbarium. The report includes the list of new weeds recorded for South Australia with locations, descriptions and photographs. Also documented are updates to taxa that have had a change in distribution, weed status or name. Other activities carried out by Weeds Botanist are also summarised, such as field trips or presentations to community groups.

The latest report is now available online:

Brodie, C.J. & Lang, P.J. (2021). Regional Landscape Surveillance for New Weed Threats Project, 2020-2021: Annual report on new plant naturalisations in South Australia. (2.2mb PDF)

Also available for download are last year’s 2019-20 report (16mb PDF), as well as the reports for 2018-19 (4.2mb PDF), 2017-18 (4.5mb PDF), 2016-17 (3.8mb PDF) and a compilation of all reports from 2010 to 2016 (3.7mb PDF).

These reports highlight to land managers, which non-native plant species have recently been found in South Australia and where. New records are listed as either “naturalised/established” (*) or “questionably naturalised/established” (?e).

At the end of June 2021, there were 5144 vascular plant taxa recognised in South Australia, of which 1618 are weeds, i.e. 31%. This year, 8 new weeds have been added to the Census; and over the last ten years, Chris Brodie’s weed surveys have discovered 244 new naturalised plants.

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