New journal articles: August 2021

The State Herbarium of South Australia published three articles in Vol. 35 of its journal Swainsona online, today, 16 August 2021.

(1) S. Dema, I.R.H. Telford, R.L. Andrew, D.J. Duval & J.J. Bruhl, Phebalium calcicola (Rutaceae: Boronieae): a species described as new, restricted to south-eastern South Australia, is proposed as Critically Endangered. (7.7mb PDF).

The authors describe a new species of Phebalium, which is only known from a small population near Mount Gambier. The species is described and illustrated in detail, and compared with its closest relatives. It grows on shallow soil over limestone, hence the name is derived from the Latin calx (limestone) and cola (dweller).

Phebalium calcicola, a new species for South Australia. Photo: D.J. Duval.

(2) T.A. Hammer & R.W. Davis, Ptilotus crinitus (Amaranthaceae), a new species from Western Australia’s Kimberley region. (1.1mb PDF).

Ptilotus crinitus, part of the type specimen. Photo: PERTH.

This new species from northern Western Australia is only known from one collection in a remote coastal area in the northern Kimberley. This study evaluates the morphology of this specimen and concludes that it warrants recognition at species rank. Its closest relatives are Phebalium distans and P. capensis.

(3) R.W.Davis, J. Palmer & T.A. Hammer, Gomphrena axillaris and G. longistyla (Amaranthaceae), new species of Gomphrena from central and northern Australia. (1.7mb PDF).

Gomphrena is one of the largest genera in Amaranthaceae. In this paper, several phrase names and manuscript names from northern and central Australia (WA, NT & Qld) are evaluated. As a result, two new species are described.

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at or the Swainsona back-up site.

New 2020-21 weeds report published

Herbarium specimen of Euphorbia davidii, collected west of Caltowie from a localised but substantial population that was spreading into paddocks from the roadside. Photo: C.J. Brodie.

The State Herbarium of South Australia documents all known plant taxa (species, sub-species, varieties and forms) native and naturalised (weedy) in South Australia. These are listed in the Census of South Australian Plants, Algae and Fungi. All newly discovered State and regional records are added to the Census throughout the year. These records are based on preserved plant specimens, verified by a botanists and housed in the vaults of the State Herbarium.

For all new records of non-native plants, an annual report is produced by Weeds Botanist Chris Brodie and colleagues from the State Herbarium. The report includes the list of new weeds recorded for South Australia with locations, descriptions and photographs. Also documented are updates to taxa that have had a change in distribution, weed status or name. Other activities carried out by Weeds Botanist are also summarised, such as field trips or presentations to community groups.

The latest report is now available online:

Brodie, C.J. & Lang, P.J. (2021). Regional Landscape Surveillance for New Weed Threats Project, 2020-2021: Annual report on new plant naturalisations in South Australia. (2.2mb PDF)

Also available for download are last year’s 2019-20 report (16mb PDF), as well as the reports for 2018-19 (4.2mb PDF), 2017-18 (4.5mb PDF), 2016-17 (3.8mb PDF) and a compilation of all reports from 2010 to 2016 (3.7mb PDF).

These reports highlight to land managers, which non-native plant species have recently been found in South Australia and where. New records are listed as either “naturalised/established” (*) or “questionably naturalised/established” (?e).

At the end of June 2021, there were 5144 vascular plant taxa recognised in South Australia, of which 1618 are weeds, i.e. 31%. This year, 8 new weeds have been added to the Census; and over the last ten years, Chris Brodie’s weed surveys have discovered 244 new naturalised plants.

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Research news: fungi papers published

Lactifluus clarkeae, illustrated by Cleland (1934).

During the last week, two papers were published by State Herbarium of South Australia‘s mycologist, Dr Teresa Lebel, and co-authors:

(1) T. Lebel, J. Douch, L. Tegart, L. Vaughan, J.A. Cooper, J. Nuytinck (2021). Untangling the Lactifluus clarkeae – Lf. flocktoniae (Russulaceae) species complex in Australasia. Persoonia 47: 1-44.

The Lactifluus clarkeae complex is a commonly observed, generally brightly coloured, group of mushrooms that are usually associated with Nothofagus or myrtaceous hosts in Australia and New Zealand. For this study collections labelled as ‘Lactarius clarkeae’, ‘Russula flocktoniae’ and ‘Lactarius subclarkeae’ were examined. Analyses of molecular data showed a high cryptic diversity, with sequences scattered across 11 clades in three subgenera within Lactifluus, and a single collection in Russula. Untangling this complex will enable better identification of species and increase understanding of diversity and specific habitat associations of macrofungi.

(2) N. Davoodian, T. Lebel, M.A. Castellano, K. Hosaka (2021). Hysterangiales revisited: expanded phylogeny reveals new genera and two new suborders. FUSE 8: 65-80.

Hysterangiales (Phallomycetidae, Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a diverse, nearly cosmopolitan order of predominantly hypogeous, sequestrate, ectomycorrhizal fungi. The authors recovered 26 provisional novel genera, and corroborated existing genera and families. Two new suborders (Phallogastrineae and Hysterangineae) and a new family (Phallogastraceae) are described, and three new combinations made to the genus Phallogaster.

Three examples of the newly described fungi family Phallogastraceae. Images published in Davoodian et al (2021).

New journal articles: July 2021

Trymalium ledifolium var. rosmarinifolium. Photo: J. Kellermann.

The State Herbarium of South Australia published two articles in Vol. 35 of its journal Swainsona online, today, 20 July 2021. In these articles, Jürgen Kellermann (State Herbarium, Adelaide) reviews the typification of several names in Trymalium and with his colleague Anna Monro (Australian National Herbarium, Canberra) publishes names for two Australian orchids.

(1) J. Kellermann, Nomenclature and typification of several pre-1958 names in Trymalium revisited (Rhamnaceae: Pomaderreae). (1.5mb PDF).

The author reviews the typification of six taxa in the genus Trymalium, which occurs in Western Australia and South Australia. Lectotypes are chosen for five current names and several synonyms. Three names for plants cultivated in Paris in the 1840s are also discussed.

(2) J. Kellermann & A. Monro, Validation of two names of Australian orchids. (1.2mb PDF).

In this short communication, the authors validate two names of Australian orchids, which had so far not been published according to the International Code of Nomenclature, even though they are used for many years: Cadetia maideniana and xGlossadenia tutelata. Lectotypes are chosed for both names.

Cadetia maideniana, part of type specimen (CANB).

To access content of all volumes of Swainsona and the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens since Vol. 1 (1976), please visit the journal’s web-site at or the Swainsona back-up site. Note that due to Covid-19 restricitons, upload of these two new articles to the official journal web-site is delayed.

Research news: fungi paper published

The State Herbarium of South Australia‘s mycologist, Dr Teresa Lebel, published the following paper with her co-authors, yesterday, in the journal Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE):

T. Lebel, J.A. Cooper, M.A. Castellano & J. Nuytinck (2021). Three independent evolutionary events of sequestrate Lactifluus species in Australasia. FUSE 8: 9-25 (open access).

Three Australian species of fungi with sequestrate (truffle-like) basidiome forms are recorded for the first time in the genus Lactifluus (milk-caps) based on nuclear ITS-LSU DNA sequences and morphological data. These species represent three rare independent evolutionary events resulting in truffle-like basidiomes arising from agaricoid (typical mushroom forms) species in three different sections in two subgenera. All three species have highly reduced basidiome forms, and no species with intermediate forms have been found.

Lactifluus dendriticus (T. Lebel) T. Lebel, J. Cooper & Nuytinck (originally described as Zelleromyces dendriticus) is unique in the genus Lactifluus in having highly branched, dendritic terminal elements in the pileipellis. One other new species is formally described in this paper: Lactifluus geoprofluens T. Lebel, Castellano, Claridge & Trappe. The third taxon is only given the informal name Lactifluus sp. prov. KV181, as not enough material was available for a detailled description.

The mushroom-like Lactifluus wirrabara (A) and its close relative, the truffle-like Lactifluus dendriticus (B). Photos: T. Lebel.